Map of Peru (1569)
I believe this is the earliest, most accurate map of Peru. It was drawn a mere 37 years after the Spanish Invasion.
When this map of Peru was drawn there was still an Inca state, and there would be for a few more years. They were hiding in the mountains in a city called Vilcabamba. Outside of Vilcabamba the Spanish were solidifying their grasp. The land was being divided into haciendas, the Spanish took control of the mines, and Spanish institutions were replacing the Inca’s. Unsurprisingly, Vilcabamba doesn’t make it onto this map of Peru.
Many of these locations never made it onto another map, making this map of utmost importance. It plays a vital role in understanding the texts of Pedro Cieza de Leon and Garcilaso de la Vega. It also sheds a little light on the geographic organization of tampus and different Inca founded establishments.
By 1569 the Spanish hold on Peru was nearly certain. All resistance outside of Vilcabamba was gone and the Spaniards did what they pleased. It was about this time that the haciendas were established and the Native Andeans had no recourse but to submit.
1569 South America Map. Mercator, Gerhard Thevet, André,
I found this map at the Library of Congress.
Did you learn anything? Do you want to know what it was like to live in the Inca Empire? .